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Tinnitus INR   0 INR  0
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Tinnitus

Tinnitus is the hearing of sound when no external sound is present. While often described as a ringing, it may also sound like a clicking, hiss or roaring. Rarely, unclear voices or music are heard. The sound may be soft or loud, low pitched or high pitched and appear to be coming from one ear or both. Most of the time, it comes on gradually. In some people, the sound causes depression, anxiety or interferes with concentration. Tinnitus is not a disease but a symptom that can result from a number of underlying causes. One of the most common causes isnoise-induced hearing loss. Other causes include: ear infections, disease of the heart or blood vessels, Ménière’s disease, brain tumors, exposure to certain medications, a previous head injury and earwax. It is more common in those with depression. The diagnosis is usually based on the person’s description. Occasionally, the sound may be heard by someone else using astethoscope: in which case, it is known as objective tinnitus. A number of questionnaires exist that assess how much tinnitus is interfering with a person’s life.People should have an audiogram and neurological exam as part of the diagnosis. If certain problems are found, medical imaging such as with MRI may be recommended. Those who have tinnitus that occurs with the same rhythm as their heartbeat also need further testing. Prevention involves avoiding loud noise. If there is an underlying cause, treating it may lead to improvements. Otherwise, typically, management involves talk therapy. Sound generators or hearing aids may help some. As of 2013, there are no effective medications. It is common, affecting about 10-15% of people. Most, however, tolerate it well with its being a significant problem in only 1-2% of people. The word tinnitus is from the Latin tinnīre which means “to ring”.

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Tabacco/Alcohol/Smoking Addictions INR   0 INR  0
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Tabacco/Alcohol/Smoking Addictions

The objective was to examine the role of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the incidence of oral cavity cancer by subsite in France, a high-incidence area. We analysed detailed data on lifelong tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking from 772 oral cavity cancer cases and 3555 controls included in a population-based case-control study, the ICARE study. Tobacco smoking increased the risk of oral cavity cancer even for the smaller quantities and durations, whereas alcohol drinking increased this risk only in heavy drinkers who were also ever smokers. The combined effect of smoking and drinking was greater than multiplicative. The floor of the mouth was the subsite that was the most affected by the harmful effects of tobacco and alcohol, whereas the gums were less susceptible.

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Toothache INR   0 INR  0
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Toothache

A toothache is a pain in or around a tooth that may be caused by: Tooth decay Abscessed tooth Tooth fracture A damaged filling Repetitive motions, such as chewing gum or grinding teeth Infected gums Symptoms of a toothache may include: Tooth pain that may be sharp, throbbing, or constant. In some people, pain results only when pressure is applied to the tooth. Swelling around the tooth Fever or headache Foul-tasting drainage from the infected tooth When Should I See a Dentist About a Toothache? See your dentist as soon as possible about your toothache if: You have a toothache that lasts longer than 1 or 2 days Your toothache is severe You have a fever, earache, or pain upon opening your mouth wide Proper identification and treatment of dental infections is important to prevent its spread to other parts of the face and skull and possibly even to the bloodstream. What Happens When I Go to the Dentist for a Toothache? To treat your toothache, your dentist will first obtain your medical history and conduct a physical exam. He or she will ask you questions about the pain, such as when the pain started, how severe it is, where the pain is located, what makes the pain worse, and what makes it better. Your dentist will examine your mouth, teeth, gums, jaws, tongue, throat, sinuses, ears, nose, and neck. X-rays may be taken as well as other tests, depending on what your dentist suspects is causing your toothache. What Treatments Are Available for a Toothache? Treatment for a toothache depends on the cause. If a cavity is causing the toothache, your dentist will fill the cavity or possibly extract the tooth, if necessary. A root canal might be needed if the cause of the toothache is determined to be an infection of the tooth’s nerve. Bacteria that have worked their way into the inner aspects of the tooth cause such an infection. An antibiotic may be prescribed if there is fever or swelling of the jaw. Occasionally, phototherapy with a cold laser, usually in conjunction with another treatment, may be used to reduce the pain and inflammation associated with the toothache. How Can Toothaches Be Prevented? Since most toothaches are the result of tooth decay, following good oral hygiene practices can prevent toothaches. Good oral hygiene practices consist of brushing regularly with a fluoride-containing toothpaste, flossing once daily, rinsing once or twice a day with an antiseptic mouthwash, and seeing your dentist twice a year for professional cleaning. In addition to these practices, eat foods low in sugar and ask your dentist about sealants and fluoride applications.

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