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Thermal Variations INR   0 INR  0
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Thermal Variations

In quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) containing neutron stars, the origin of the thermal X-ray component may be either release of heat from the core of the neutron star, or continuing low-level accretion. In general, heat from the core should be stable on timescales <104 years, while continuing accretion may produce variations on a range of timescales. While some quiescent neutron stars (e.g. Cen X-4, Aql X-1) have shown variations in their thermal components on a range of timescales, several others, particularly those in globular clusters with no detectable nonthermal hard X-rays (fit with a powerlaw), have shown no measurable variations. Here, we constrain the spectral variations of 12 low mass X-ray binaries in 3 globular clusters over ∼10 years. We find no evidence of variations in 10 cases, with limits on temperature variations below 11% for the 7 qLMXBs without powerlaw components, and limits on variations below 20% for 3 other qLMXBs that do show non-thermal emission. However, in 2 qLMXBs showing powerlaw components in their spectra (NGC 6440 CX 1 & Terzan 5 CX 12) we find marginal evidence for a 10% decline in temperature, suggesting the presence of continuing low-level accretion. This work adds to the evidence that the thermal X-ray component in quiescent neutron stars without powerlaw components can be explained by heat deposited in the core during outbursts. Finally, we also investigate the correlation between hydrogen column density (NH) and optical extinction (AV) using our sample and current models of interstellar X-ray absorption, finding NH(cm−2)=(2.81±0.13)×1021AV.

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Thyroid disease INR   0 INR  0
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Thyroid disease

A thyroid disease is a medical condition impairing the function of the thyroid. Different thyroid diseases include Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. These diseases have a large range of symptoms and affect all ages. Imbalance in production of thyroid hormones arises from dysfunction of the thyroid gland itself, the pituitary gland, which produces thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or the hypothalamus, which regulates the pituitary gland via thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Concentrations of TSH increase with age, requiring age-corrected tests. Hypothyroidism affects between three and ten percent of adults, with incidence higher in women and the elderly.

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Ulcerative colitis INR   0 INR  0
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Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation and ulcers in the colon. The disease is a type of colitis, which is a group of diseases that cause inflammation of the colon, the largest section of the large intestine, either in segments or completely. The main symptom of active disease is diarrhea mixed with blood. Ulcerative colitis has much in common with Crohn’s disease, another form of IBD, but what sets it apart from Crohn’s disease is that ulcerative colitis, as its name suggests, only affects the colon and rectum, leaving the rest of the gastrointestinal tract unscathed, while Crohn’s disease can affect the whole GI tract from mouth to anus. Also, surgical removal of the colon and rectum cures ulcerative colitis, which actually means the disease does not recur after surgery, unlike Crohn’s disease, which has a tendency to recur after surgery to remove the abnormal part of the bowel and connect the healthy ends. Ulcerative colitis is an intermittent disease, with periods of exacerbated symptoms, and periods that are relatively symptom-free. Although the symptoms of ulcerative colitis can sometimes diminish on their own, the disease usually requires treatment to go into remission. Ulcerative colitis has anincidence of 1 to 20 cases per 100,000 individuals per year, and a prevalence of 8 to 246 per 100,000 individuals.

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